Richmond and Alexandria

Price Book;


The House Carpenters' and Joiner's

All their different kinds of Work, &c.
To which is added,

The Ship Joiners', Stone Masons', and Plaisterers' Prices,

And Customary way of Measuring their Work, &c
Published by Peter Cottom, And for sale at his Bookstore; also, by Richard Cottom, Petersburg; Ward & Digges, Lynchburg; Caleb Bonsal, Norfolk, &c.


Page 1
District of Virginia--To Wit:
Be it remembered, that on the twenty-seventh day of May, in the forty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, Peter Cottom of the said District, deposited in this office, the title of a Book, the right whereof he claims as proprietor, in the words following, to wit:
"The Richmond and Alexandria Builder's Price Book: containing the House Carpenter's and Joiner's Book of Prices, and Rule for measuring and valuing all their different kind of Work, &c. To which is added, the Ship Joiner's, Stone Mason's, and Plaisterer's Prices, and customary way of measuring their Work, &c." In conformity to the Act of Congress of the United States, entitled, "An Act for the encouragement of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the time therein mentioned," &c.
Rd. Jeffries,
Clerk of the District of Virginia
Page 2


The Carpenters and Joiners having long experienced a variety of difficulties by not having the prices of their work equitably established; and conscious that their employers are frequently subject to imposition, by not having their work finished in a workmanlike manner; having thought proper to arrange the different branches of their trade, with the prices of each annexed, established upon true and mathematical modes of measurement. They hope that it will have a tendency to preserve a good understanding amongst each other, and that their customers may be equally and justly charged by those whom they may employ to execute their work.
Well qualified measurers ought to be appointed to give legal measure and value for the same. Should at any time, the work be not finished in a workmanlike manner, to give value accordingly to the best of their judgment, and who will attest the same if required.
Page 3


Architraves 14
Boxes and Bed Mould Eves 12
Base and Surbase 13
Beaufet Doors 19
Cornice, inside and outside 11 & 12
Centers 28
Cellar Doors, Ceiling Piazzas, and Clock Pin Rails 29
Covering Walls, Counters 30
Chimneys for Rooms 33
Cement 53
To Make A Curious Cement 58
ditto, Ancient, ditto. for Furnaces, &c 59
Door and Window Frames 16
Doors and Partitions 26
Drawers 31
Framing 7
Framing Roofs 8
ditto. Warehouses 9
Frontispieces 22
Flooring 23
Fencing 26
Flat Roofs 27
Gutters &c. Gates 28
Linings and Soffits 14
Lime &c. 46
Shingling and Lathing 10
Mouldings 14
Mantle Pieces 19
Maleable Zinc 41
Mortar 56
Ovens &c. 39
Pilasters for Chimneys &c. 20
Pediments 21
Plasterer's Work &c. 46
Quoin Casings 15
Racks and Mangers 32
Inside Shutters 15
Outside Shutters 15
Sashes 17
Stairs 24
Shelving 30
Ship Joiners Work 35
Stone Masons Work 37
Terras 51
Venetian Blinds 31
Weatherboarding 10
Window Frames 16
Window and Trap Doors 11
Wainscoat 20
Well Curbs 32
Wooden Bricks And Bond Timbers 32


Drawing designs, making out bills of scantling, collecting materials, and sticking up stuff, are to be charged by the carpenter in proportion to the trouble.
In taking dimensions of floors of joist, in stone and brick buildings, add twelve inches to the length of the joist more than the clear of the wall.
In frame buildings, measure to the ends of the joist, by the clear of the buildings.
Of rafters, take the length from the top to the back of the cornice, if pieced out; but, if not pieced, only to the other end of the rafter. If the laths are supported by pieces on the wall, measure for the width of those walls; but, if they are not thus supported, then onlly to the clear width between the walls.
In frame buildings, all the superficial dimensions of the sides and ends are to be taken; the length of all collar beams are to be taken on the underside, to the out-edge of the rafter, by the same width they are measured, and added to their dimensions.
Of partitions, add three inches to the height of the story, for nailing, and make no deduction for door-ways.
All shingled roofs or boarded, are measured without any deduction for windows, doors or chimnies. For cornice, take the longest fillet for the length, and for mantles, girt the top with the cornice and the bed-mould; but, for kitchen mantles, take only from the top-edge of the shelf, for the girt, to the bottom of the rail. To measure columns or pilasters, take the length of the shaft of pilaster or column, and of the die of the pedestal between the mouldings by the girts, take the length of the most projecting fillet, or part of the mouldings of the base or capital, for the length, and girt into the mouldings for the breadth, and the same method for the base or cornice of the pedestals; also, girt the frieze and architrave for the breadth, by the upper fillet of the architrave for the length. Girt the cornice, and take the length of the upper fillet of that member for its dimensions, &c. A2
Page 5



Rich'd. Alexa.
$ ¢ $ ¢
WARE, or Lumber House Floors framed with one girder, tusked above, and let in below, per sq. 2 25 2 34
Do. with two girders, do. 3 25 3 34
Do. with three do. do. 3 75 4 00
Do. with four do. do. 4 50 4 67
Galloping Joists laid on one girder, pr. square, 1 75 2 00
Do. on two girders, 2 88 3 34
Do. laid on walls, 1 50 1 67
N. B. The above Joists are supposed to be for Ware Houses, but if for Dwelling Houses, and under eighteen feet long per square, 1 25 1 34
Do. over eighteen feet long, per sq. 1 50 1 67
Do. for Dwelling Houses, with one girder tusked, per square, 1 75 2 00
Do. with two girders, per square 2 25 2 50
Do. with three girders, do. 2 75 3 00
Page 7
If more than three girders for each, extra, 4 75 5 00
If girders are placed in a range 25 ft. In length, it is considered a floor of one girder. - If 50 in length, a floor of two girders - and if 75 ft. a floor of three girders, and for each additional length of 25 feet, one additional girder,
Bridging Joists, per foot running, 0 19 0 17
Ditto do. with tennants and keyed per foot running, 0 25 0 20
Hewing and Dressing girders to be charged by the day, (say, if from 8 to 10 inches,) 5 to 7
Ditto, if from 12 to 20 inches, 8 to 10
Joists cambered per square, extra, 0 50 0 50
Counterlaying with scantling, &c. per square, 1 50 1 50
Do. For deafening floors per square, 1 75 2 00
Plaining Joists lower edge, and corners taken off, per foot running extra, 0 0 01
Plaining and beading Joists per foot square, 0 02 0 02
Story Posts fixed under girders, 75 to 100 0 75
If three inch caps to do. each, 0 25 0 25
If from 6 to 10 inch caps with keys 175 to 2
Story Posts fixed up, plained, and corners taken off, per foot square, 0 04 0 05
If caps to do. Each, 0 56 0 36
With purlins & collar beams per sq. 2 00 2 00
Do. With king-posts, purlins and col-beams, 4 00 4 13
Do. With king-posts, collar beams, and hammer beams, 5 00 5 00
Page 8
Plain Roofs under 24 feet span, per square, 1 25 1 34
Do. Over 24 and under 30, per sq. 1 50 1 50
Do. From 30 to 36, per do. 1 58 1 67
Small Roofs without collar beams per square 1 00 1 00
Laying in sleepers or silling joists for stable or rough buildings, per square, 1 00 1 00
Framing the body of a full framed Warehouse, per square, 1 34 2 00
Do. The body of Dwelling Houses, do. 1 50 1 50
Do. Of a Lighter, such as back buildings, 1 25 1 34
Studded partitions, per square, 1 12 1 17
Do. If framed of do. Per do. 1 15 1 50
Trussed partitions of studs, per do. If no dressing of timber, 5 00 5 00
If dressed, or of larger than 3x4 stuff, 5 25
Framing Necessary Houses, per do. 4 50 4 67
Do. If built of brick for joists and rafters, 4 50 4 67
Do. Of floors, saites and raisers, per foot superficial, 8 to 10 0 8
Do. For clamped covers to saites and frame to do. And frames for same, 0 33 0 25
Raising plates sunk in, and pinned per foot running, 0 8 0 8
Do. Sunk in, & spiked or nailed, do. 0 6 0 6
Spur Pinns let into joists passing each other, per do. 0 6 0 6
Do. Framing for Hips and Valley Rafters, per foot running, 0 25
N.B. For dimensions of hipped roofs, take the length of the facia, by the length of the plain rafter on the hipped side, but on the valley side, take the length of the ridge by the length of the plain rafter.
Page 9
Weather-boarding with the boards sprung, rabbeted or beaded, per sq. 2 00 2 08
Do. With narrow boards, single rabbeted, 2 50 3 00
Do. Double rabbeted, per do. 3 50 3 67
N.B. the width of the boards to be from 4 to 6 inches show,
Do. Rough, full width, sprung or rabbeted, 1 50 1 75
Do. Jointed and lapped only, 1 25 1 25
Do. Lapped only, doors and window slips included, 1 12 1 00
Shingling courses 4 1/2 inches show, per square, 2 75 2 84
Do. Do. 5 inches, do. 2 50 2 58
Do. Do. 6 inches, do. 2 25 2 34
Do. Do. 7 inches, do. 1 75 2 00
Do. Do. 9 inches, do. 1 34 1 67
N.B. The above shingles to be ready dressed to the workman's hand, but if rough, per square extra, 0 50 0 50
Shingling of Valleys without lead or copper, &c. per foot running, 0 25 0 25
Shingling Hips running per foot, 0 25
Stripping off old roofs, shifting or turning lathing or sheeting to be charged by the day; raising of scaffold, &c, likewise by the day
Page 10
For stripping old roofs, cleaning out nails and shingles, a new is worth as much as any new work that shows out in the shingling the same.
Arched dormers, if three lights wide double cornice and open pilasters full capped & based with shingled of boarded cheeks each, 0 24 0 25
If architrave and key, charge extra, 2 50
Plain arched dormers, 16 00 16 67
Plain ridged dormers shingled or boarded cheeks with cant boards and raised lip, 12 50 10 00
If any of the above dormer windows should be more than three lights wide charge for each width extra, 1 50 1 67
Flat do. Shingled or boarded cheeks, 8 75 8 34
Do. Plain boarded cheeks, 6 50 5 84
Trap Doors done in the best manner, 5 00 4 00
With a plain bedmould for a two or three story building, per foot superficial, 0 20 0 25
Raking do. For do. [It is impossible for the contrast to be so great. Between the level and raking cornice, I find $.89 difference. It must be a typographical mistake--Richmond Ed.] 1 00 8 34
Level modillion cornice to a two or three story Building per do. 0 40 0 36
Raking do. per do. 0 50 0 50
Level do. With a fret in the bed mould, 0 50 0 50
Page 11
Raking do. With fret do. 0 62 0 62
Level do. With a fret in the bedmould to a one story building per do. 0 60 0 60
Raking do. With do. 0 67 0 70
Level modillion cornice to a one story building, with a plain bed mould per do. 0 45 0 50
Raking do. per do. 0 55 0 60
Plain double cornice to a one story building, per foot superficial, 0 29 0 34
Raking do. Per foot, 0 37 0 42
Plain block cornice, per do. 0 34 0 37
Raking do. per do. 0 42 0 46
Base Eve with a Bedmould, per foot superficial, 0 17 0 20
Base Eve per foot runnning, 0 12 0 12
Back and Verge Boards per foot do. 0 6 0 6
Do. If rough per do. 0 4 0 4
If double faced, per foot running, 0 12
If single, and 20 feet long, 0 8
Modillion cornice without a fret per foot superficial, 0 50 0 55
Do. With a fret per do. 0 67 0 66
Plain double cornice per do. 0 34 0 34
Do. With a fret per do. 0 44 0 46
Do. With mutules and plain bedmould, 0 64 0 67
Do. With a fret in the bedmould, per foot superficial, 0 75 0 80
N.B. Add for each break in the cornices the price of one foot of its measurement.
Page 12
For dimensions of cornices, take the length of the facia by the girth of the mouldings, indenting the line into all its members
If any of the above cornices have a fancy faced frieze, to be valued according to the trouble taken.
But if fluted with patrasses in the spaces, festoons, drapery, or any other enrichments, charge per foot running, 0 25 0 20
Plain single cornice per foot do. 0 17 0 17
Do. If an astragal on the edge of the facia, 0 20 0 20
N.B. If the facia should be ornamented in any way, charge in proportion.
Base and surbase pedestal mouldings, per foot running, 0 20 0 25
If sunk or opened with fancy mouldings, to be charged extra according to the labor; say, add one third. 0 27
For all mitus occasioned by projevtions or recesses, add one foot to its measurement.
Such as pedestal mouldings, 2 cents for every inch girth, for every foot in length.
Common surbase per foot running, 0 8 0 11
Plain skirting, per do. 0 6 0 6
Do. With a belection or any other moulding, 0 10 0 7
If the facia of the above surbase shold be ornamented, charge as before in cornice,
Page 13
Charge for plinth in base moulding running, 0 6 0 7
Grounds under base and surbase, per foot, and to doors and windows 2 1/2 to 3 inches 0 6 0 4
Mouldings from 3-8 to 3-4 of an inch per foot running, 0 2 0 1
Do. From 3-4 to 5-4. 0 4 0 2
Corner beads or strips for do. 0 6 0 4
If double cased angles, narrow per foot, 0 7
If double faced architraves, per foot running, 0 17 0 14
Do. If sunk and quirk mouldings, do. 0 20 0 20
Circular do. Four prices of straight,
For each knee in do. Architraves, 0 20 0 25
Grounds under architraves, per set, say 6 cents per foot running, 06
Plinths under architraves, per set, 34 34
Single faced architraves, per foot running, 0 8 0 10
Wainscoat jambs and soffits for doors and windows, per foot super. If raised, 0 22 0 25
Do. If flat panneled, 0 18 0 21
If ornamented on the pannels with mouldings, 0 25 0 26
Page 14
Do. Bead and flush per do. 0 26 0 27
Do. Flat pannel ogee and bead, 0 22 0 25
Circular soffits charge four prices,
If double rabbeted per do. On each edge, add extra for each foot, 0 12 0 14
Do. Single rabetted, add per foot, 0 6 0 9
If splayed, per foot extra, 0 3 0 4
If out of 2 or 3 inch stuff, and well made, say, 0 34
From 4 to 9 inches per foot running, 0 7 0 7
Do. From 10 to 14 do. 0 10 0 10
Do. Beaded and mitred on the edge, 0 12 0 11
If any of the above are splayed extra, per foot, 0 2 0 3
If keyed on back with dove tail keys, per foot, 0 16
Inside shutters made in the best manner, the folds framed--bead and butt on the back, raised or flat on front, per foot superficial, 0 34 0 37
If cut at the meeting rail, per do. 0 37 0 42
Do. With the back flyers clamped, do. 0 25 0 29
Plain do. Clamped throughout, 0 17 0 20
Soffits to be measured as narrow wainscoat.
Do. Splayed or flewed, per do. 0 30 0 34
Outside pannel shutters, framed and raised pannels, per foot superficial, 0 20 0 25
Page 15
Charge for lining, per do. 0 4 0 6
Bead and flush thick stuff, stiles rabbeted to receive the linings per do. 0 34 0 37
Do. Bead and flush on both sides, 0 44 0 50
Bead and butt shutters, per do. 0 25 0 25
Batton do. Shutters, per do. 0 20 0 20
Double boarded do. Per do. 0 18 0 17
Ledged shutters, per do. 0 12 0 19
To full trimmed, solid or cased per foot running, 0 10 0 11
If with moulding sill, charge extra, each 0 37 0 43
If boxes for weights, per foot, do. 0 6 0 6
If with parting slips, per do. Do. 0 4 0 4
Door frames made of large stuff, per foot running, 0 12 0 14
Letting in of bars, of either wood or iron, 0 6 0 8
Plain door or window frames, per foot running, 0 7 1/2 0 8
Do. With shutter rabbets, per do. 0 8 1/2 0 10
Do. With mouldings, and no shutter rabbets, 0 10 0 11
Window stools of pine, per foot running, 0 13 0 12
If cedar or locust, per do. 0 50 0 75
If worked with washes extra, per foot, 0 10 0 12
Do. If square, no bead or moulding, 0 8
Reveal window frames, per foot, 0 12 0 17
If double hung, charge for the parting bead, per foot running, 0 4 0 4
If solid, per foot, do. 0 10 0 12
Hanging stiles, per do. 0 4 0 6
Page 16
Ovolo sash 8 by 10 glass, including all under that size, per light, 0 10 0 12
Do. 9 by 11 per do. 0 12 0 13
Do. 10 by 12 per do. 0 13 0 15
Do. 12 by 14 per do. 0 15 0 17
Do. 12 by 16 per do. 0 17 0 19
Do. 14 by 19 per do. 0 19 0 21
If any of the above should be stuck with astragal and hollow, charge per light extra, 0 4 0 6
If any is double franked, add per light, 0 4 0 4
If single franked, add per light extra, 0 2 0 2
If any of the above sashes is more than 5-4 stuff, for each 1-4 in thickness, add per light, 0 1 0 1
Hanging sash double hung with weights, 1 75 1 50
Do. Single hung per do. 0 87 0 75
Double margin doors extra per yard, 0 28 0 33
Ledged doors of 4-4 stuff, per foot superficial, 0 6 0 8
Do. If slit boards per do. 0 8 0 9
Do. If made 5-4 stuff, per foot, 0 10 0 11
Hanging doors or shutters with HL hinges, 0 17 0 17
Do. With hooks, and strop hinges, or parliament do. 0 25 0 30
Mortice locks out on, 1 00 1 00
Common locks put on, 0 30 0 25
Latches or bolts put on each, 0 12 0 12
Putting on bars, with staples each, 0 50 0 62
Putting on handles, rappers, &c. to outside doors, 0 75 0 75
Page 17
Putting on iron bars, each 0 25 0 25
Eight pannel doors, made of two inch stuff, the stiles rabbeted for the reception of the lining, and double hung, per yard, 2 75 2 75
Do. Single hung and lined, per do. 2 37 2 42
Eight pannel doors, made of common stuff, lined and double hung, do. 2 37 2 42
Do. Single hung and lined, per do. 2 00 2 08
Six pannel doors, lined and double hung, 2 00 2 08
Do. Single hung and lined, per do. 1 78 1 83
Four pannel doors, lined and double hung, 1 62 1 75
Do. If single hung, per do. 1 37 1 42
Bead and flush doors of eight pannels, made of thick stuff, lined and double hung, per yard, 3 00 3 17
Do. Single hung, and lined per do. 2 50 2 67
Do. Unlined, and double hung with mouldings, planted on back of pannels, per yard, 2 87 2 92
Do. Unlined, and single, done as above, per yard, 2 42 2 42
Bead and flush six pannel doors, lined and double hung, per yard, 2 75 2 83
Do. Single hung and lined, per do. 2 37 2 50
Double hung and unlined, per do. 2 33 2 42
Do. Single hung, per yard, 2 00 2 08
N.B. All the above unlined doors, are supposed to have mouldings planted on the back,
Six pannel doors, made of thick stuff, stuck with quirk ogee and bead, flat pannel and double worked, per yard, 2 50 2 62
Page 18
Do. Single worked, of common stuff, do. 1 62 1 83
Ovolo or ogee doors, worked on both sides, per yard, 2 34 2 42
Do. Single worked, of common stuff, do. 1 50 1 67
Do. Double worked and single raised, do. 2 00 2 25
Do. Raised on both sides, do. 2 33 2 50
Four pannel doors, either raised or flat pannels, per do. 1 34 1 50
Do. Framed, square & flat pannels, do. 0 87 1 08
Carpet sills if let in floors, each 1 00 1 00
Do. If nailed on in the best manner, 0 50 0 62
Common, do. 0 17 0 34
If mahogany, let in floor, 1 25 1 25
Made in four parts, ogee or ovolo, four pannels above and two below, per yard, 2 00 2 00
Frames to closets where there is no breast work, take door and frame, per do. 2 00 2 00
If the above should be stuck with a quirk ogee & bead, charge per do. 2 17 2 17
Plain mantle cornice, per foot superficial, 0 50 0 50
Do. With a fret or dentule in bedmouding per do. 0 58 0 58
If trusses add for each break in bedmould, per foot do. 0 30 0 34
Page 19
If cornice and bedmould are both broke, add for each break, 0 40 0 58
For a tablet, 0 50 0 58
For a set of grounds, 1 00 1 00
If any of the above should have an ornamented frieze, facia or achitrave, charge per foot running, 0 20 0 25
If cheese mouldings or any other mouldings, buttoned or carved, for each member, add per foot running, 0 20 0 25
Flat trusses fluted each, 0 50 0 42
Plain do. Do. 0 20 0 25
Swelled trusses with drops, 1 00 1 00
If open and fluted, 1 25
All quirk or fancy mouldings, or mouldings worked by hand in cornices or bedmoulds, charge extra in proportion to the labor; also in same manner, charge for all columns or half columns.
Fluted do. Full capped and based per set, common size, 4 50 5 00
Open do. Full capped & based per do. 2 50 3 00
Tabernacle frames where there is no breast, per foot running, 0 12 0 17
Do. On frames, charge as double architrave, and for each knee charge, 0 25 0 25
If columns or half columns, charge for extra labor.
Framed wainscoat against walls with quirk ogee, flat pannel, per yard, 1 25 1 25
Page 20
Do. Stuck with ovolo or ogee, and raised pannels per yard, 1 25 1 25
Plain dado under surbase, per do. 0 92 0 92
If keyed in proper manner, per do. 1 00
Angular wainscoat with a single pannel, per do. 2 44 2 50
If more than one pannel, per do. 2 75 3 00
Angular dado, per yard, do. 1 40 1 50
If double keyed & grooved together in the intersection 1 67
Outside do. Without ornaments to a three feet opening, each, 7 84 8 34
Do. 4 feet do. Do. 8 50 9 17
Do 5 feet do. Do. 9 56 10 00
Do. With a fret or dentule in a bedmould to a three feet opening, 9 00 9 38
Do. With a do. To a 4 feet do. 10 00 10 83
Do. With a do. To a 5 feet do. 11 56 12 08
Open pediments to a three feet opening, 8 50 9 17
Do. To a 4 feet do. 9 17 10 00
Do. To a 5 feet do. 10 50 10 83
Do. With a fret or dentule to a 3 feet do. 9 50 10 00
Do. With a do. To a 4 feet do. 10 50 11 25
Do. With a do. To a 5 feet do. 11 75 12 50
And for each truss, charge as in chimney pieces.
Scroll pediments toa 3 feet opening, 18 25 20 00
Do. Do 4 feet do. 20 50 22 50
Do. Do 5 feet do. 22 75 25 00
Straight caps, to a 3 feet opening, 3 00 3 00
Do. Do. To a 4 feet do. 3 25 3 50
Do. Do. To a 5 feet do. 3 75 4 00
Do. With a fret or dentule bedmould to a 3 feet opening. 3 25 3 50
Page 21
Do. Do. Do. To a 4 feet do. 3 75 4 00
Do. Do. Do. To a 5 feet do. 4 25 4 50
All casings on edge of sill and plates under 8 and over 5 inches, per foot running, 0 8
Over 8 and under 11, do. 0 11
If opened to show a double face, then add one third of the above prices to the same.
Plain Tuscan columns, girth the shafts by the length, per foot superficial, 0 20 0 25
The base and capital to be girt indenting in the flutes by the circumference in the largest, per foot do. 0 87 1 00
The level cornice, frieze and architrave to be girt by the length, per do. 0 25 0 34
The pediment must be measured, per do. 0 37 0 50
If the above pediments be supported by pilasters, measure and charge as above, except in the pilasters, for which deduct one third of the price of the shaft, and for each ground under frontispieces, 2 50 3 00
Dorick frontispieces to be valued and measured as above, if the columns be plain, but if fluted, 0 40 0 42
Bases and capital per foot, 1 00 1 08
Architrave, frieze & cornice, per do. 0 50 0 50
Raking cornice, per do. 0 58 0 58
If ornamented with trigleaves, mutules & drops, per foot superficial, 1 00 1 00
N.B. Charge per carving extra.
Pediment part of the cornice per do. 1 12 1 25
Page 22
Ionic frontispieces to be measured and valued as above, the capitals for each of which, charge, 3 75 4 00
If any of the above columns be set in piazzas, charge as above,
But for the architraves, friezes and cornices, charge in the same manner as directed for the same kind of work, in other parts of a building.
Best doweled floors from 3 to 5 inches wide, per square, 8 50 7 50
Do. From 5 to 6 1-2 per do. 7 56 6 67
Tongued and grooved, and secret nailed, from 3 to 5 per do. 6 84 6 67
Do. From 5 to 7 per do. 6 50 6 17
Do. Nailed through, 5 to 6 per do. 4 00 3 75
Do. From 6 to 9 per do. 3 25 3 34
Do. Square joints, 4 to 7 per do. 2 50 2 64
Do. Do. 6 to 9 per do. 2 34 2 34
Inch full width planed, tongued and grooved, per square, 2 50 2 00
Slit tongued and grooved per do. 3 25 3 34
Rough, full width, per do. 1 75 1 50
Do. Planed and jointed, 1 87 1 67
Two inch plank, planed, tongued and grooved, full width per do. 3 87 4 00
Do. Planed and jointed, per do. 3 25 3 00
Do. Tongued & grooved only, per do. 2 87 3 00
Do. Jointed only, per do. 2 00 2 00
1 1-4 inch tongued & grooved, per do. 2 50 2 00
Jointed only, per do. 1 75 1 42
Straight Joints, 5-4 tongued and grooved floors, nailed thro' planks shewing from 5 to 6 inches per sq. 4 50 5 00
Do. 4-4 Ripd. From 5 to 6 do. Per sq/ 4 25 4 50
Page 23
Do. 5-4 tongued and grooved rough, do. Shewing from 5 to 9 inches per square, 2 67 2 50
Rough square joints do. From 5 to 9 per square, 1 75 1 75
Fire borders to hearths each, 0 50 0 66
If run all around each, 0 87
If of mahogany each, 1 00 1 00
N.B. One square of flooring will take 200 nails. To make the latter tough, heat them in a fire shovel, or the like, and put a bit of tallow or grease into them.
Open newel strairs, string hand-rail and bannisters, per step, 1 67 1 75
Do. With plain bracket and two bannisters to a step, 2 25 2 34
Do. With three bannisters, per do. 2 40 2 50
If a scroll or open bracket, per do. 2 75 2 75
If the steps and riser mould are glued together, charge for each step extra, 0 34 0 42
For each ramp in hand-rail, 3 75 4 00
For each circular rail, 4 00 4 00
For an ogee ramp, 4 75 5 00
For a twist rail of one revolution, 20 00 20 00
For do. Of one and a half do. 25 50 26 67
Do. for 2 do. 32 50 33 34
Half hand-rail, per foot running, 0 20 0 17
For a ramp in do. 1 87 2 00
For a plain open pilaster on a stair case, 1 00 1 00
For a pilaster full capped and based on do. 1 34 1 50
Page 24
Raking wainscoat on stairs, per yd. 1 75 2 00
For each ramp pannel in do, extra, 1 34 1 50
Level wainscoat on stairs, per yard, 1 25 1 34
Quarter or half spaces each, 3 00 2 50
The flooring of the spaces measured at the rate of other flooring of its kind.
For fluting a pilaster on stairs, each, 0 58 0 75
For fluting newel posts, each, 1 50 1 67
For a plain half post, 0 50 0 50
If any of the above stairs are more than 3 feet 3 inches wide, charge for every inch the steps is longer over
Common winding stairs all under 3 feet going 0 75 0 67
Do. All above 3, to 4 feet long, per step 0 87 0 75
Raking skirting, per foot running 0 13 0 17
Do. If on windows, per do. 0 20 0 25
Preparing Newels for the Turners, &c.
For stairs, per do. 0 06 0 06
Steps of two inch plank plained each 1 00 0 75
Do. Rough do. 0 50 0 58
Level rail and balisters per foot running 0 58 0 62
If mahogany rails, per foot running extra 0 25 0 25
Moulded caps to newels each 0 58 0 75
Knee to handrails each 0 62 0 75
Rough partitions of one and a quarter inch stuff 1 25 1 50
Do. Of one inch stuff per square 1 10 1 17
Do plained on one side, and grooved of one inch plank full width; per foot superficial 0 04 0 03
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Do. Plained on both sides, per do. 0 06 0 04
Do plained on both sides and out of one and a quarter inch plank, per do. And grooved 0 08 0 05
Lattice partitions of a plain kind, per foot superficial, 0 10 0 08
Chinese door if sprigged, per do. 0 34 0 34
Do. If morticed, per do. 0 44 0 50
Do. If in partitions, platforms or round walks as fencings, if sprigged per do. 0 30 0 29
Do. If morticed as above, per do. 0 42 0 46
Do. If fixed on platforms or galleries on roofs, charge for the rail only per foot running, 0 30 0 25
Do. For working knowels, per do. 0 08 0 08
Circular palisade-fencing, per foot running 1 37 1 42
If a ramp in do. For each extra 2 00 2 00
Do. Straight, per foot running 0 87 0 83
Do. With pailings moulded heads and let in rails per do. 0 75 0 66
Do. Sharpened and let in rails 0 55 0 50
Do. Moulded and not let in rails 0 50 0 50
Do. Plained on one side only 0 25 0 25
Do. Plained and sharpened and not let in 0 34 0 34
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Do. Rough per do. 0 17
N.B. The above railings is supposed to have the posts and railing dressed on both sides. 0 17
Rough board fencing, per square 0 87 0 67
Do. Sprung and beaded, per do. 1 25 1 17
Do. Plained on one side, grooved or sprung, per do. 1 56 1 67
Do. Plained on both sides, grooved and sprung per do 2 00 2 17
The posts of each of the above kinds is supposed to be faced on one side but if they are dressed all round, charge for each 0 29 0 29
For digging post holes each 0 08 0 12
Fences boarded perpendicular, notched on the tops, per square 1 50 1 50
Do. If plained, jointed and beaded on one side, per do 2 00 2 00
Do. If with a facia, capped and nailed on the top, per do 2 84 3 14
Do. If with turned heads to posts pales one and a half wide and one and a quarter thick, all the stuff plained up and rails framed in posts in the best manner, say pannels seven feet by four feet six per pannel done in the best manner 4 87
Double boarded, the under laying grooved, and the upper square joint, grooved and thicknessed, per square, 7 00 7 50
If single and tongued and grooved for covering with composition out of one and a quarter stuff per square 3 75
Page 27
If of two inch stuff, per do. 5 00
Gutters on roofs prepared for lead or copper, per foot running 0 12 0 17
Do. Made and fixed under eves, per do. 0 14 0 17
Square trunks fixed against walls, do 0 22 0 20
Do. Circular on front, wrought out of the solid, per foot do 0 40 0 42
Add for each joint in the above, extra 0 25 0 34
For each cap, four timed the price of a foot of any of the above
Pasture gates ten feet wide per bar, 1 00 1 00
Gates of a smaller size, such as garden gates, and yard do. Charge double, the price of the fence.
N.B. Hewing posts and digging holes to be separate charges.
Charge for each foot of length on the base line 0 32 0 25
For each, above two ribs, per foot 0 44 0 37
Centers with more than two ribs, for each rib extra per foot 0 10 0 12
Cutting and fixing do. For straight arches of brick each 0 25 0 35
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Do. Do. For stone work 0 35 0 40
If for do. Stone, and from 12 to 20 feet span, and from 20 to 30 feet going for each rib over 2, and covered with boards per foot 0 25
From 30 to 50 feet span, and from 30 to 60 feet going, for each rib over 2, and covered with boards per foot running 0 30
Cellar doors of cedar or locust cheeks lined or ledged 8 00 8 00
Do. With pine cheeks, do. 7 00 6 00
do. If single hung, cedar or locust cheeks, per do. 7 00 6 00
Do. If pine cheeks, per do. 5 00 4 00
Cellar doors only hung to stone cheeks lined and rounded off double 4 25
Do. If ledged and double hung 3 25
If lined, and single hung 3 75
Do. If ledged and do. Hung 2 75
Plained, tongued and grooved, per square, 5 00 4 67
Circular do. Tongued and grooved per do. 10 34 8 34
Do. For cutting and fixing of ribs for circular ceiling, per do. 3 00 3 00
Plain clock-pin rails, beaded on both edges, per foot 0 08 0 06
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If a belection or other mouldings planted on 0 10 0 08
Rabit strips, per foot running 0 04 0 03
From 9 to 14 inches, with shingles, facia and single cornice on both sides, per foot running 0 50 0 67
Do. Boarded up and down, facia and cornice, per foot running, 0 37 0 47
Do. Lengthways, per foot do. 0 37 0 47
Closet shelves, per foot superficial 0 08 0 08
Do. Scolloped, per do. 0 14 0 11
Closet lining, per do. 0 06 0 06
Rabbit slips per do. 0 04 0 03
Store shelves with an astragal stuck on the edge, and halved per do. 0 08 0 08
Do. Beaded on the edge per do. 0 06 0 06
Do. Square edge per do 0 05 0 04
Do. Stove linings in large spaces, 0 04 0 03
Counters with framed fronts, charge as wainscoat, from $1.25 to $3 per yard
Do. For a mahogany top, per foot superficial, 0 10 0 08
If clamped flaps, each flap extra 1 00 0 67
Framing each trussel, under framed counters, 0 34 0 25
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Circular do. Four prices
If fronts of counters is sealed with boards tongued and grooved of wide stuff per foot superficial 0 10
If top of narrow one and a quarter plank, per foot do. 0 12
Common counter tops of one and a half inch stuff, per foot superficial, 0 08 0 07
Do. Of one inch do. 0 04 0 05
Drawers dovetailed, measuring 2 feet superficial, per superficial foot 0 75 0 75
Do. 3 feet superficial, per do. 0 87 1 00
Do. 4 feet do. Do 1 12 1 25
Do. 5 feet do. Do. 1 37 1 50
Do. 6 feet do. Do. 1 87 1 75
N.B. measure the drawers, all round, including the bottom.
Do. For frames or casings of drawers per foot running 0 04 0 05
Do. For front frames to do. Per foot, 0 06 0 08
Double hung, the bars to stand fast, per foot superficial, 0 28 0 42
Do. Double hung, the bars to shift on a center, per do. 0 42 0 50
Do. Single hung, the bars fast per do. 0 25 0 34
Do. The bars to shift on a center do. 0 34 0 42
If the slats are morticed into stiles of five quarter stuff per foot superficial, 0 46 0 54
If six quarter stuff, and do. Per do. 0 48 0 56
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Wooden bricks prepared to lay in a wall per hundred, 2 00 2 08
Bond tables, lintels and wall plates per foot running
Bond timbers, lintels and wall plates of three inch stuff, per foot running 0 03 0 04
Do. If thicker, charge in proportion.
Well curbs of one inch plank, doubled each, 1 50 2 08
Lined with one inch plank round the curbs, or ribs, per square, 1 87 2 00
Upper well curbs, with a windlays 7 00 6 00
Mangers the front of thick stuff, per foot running, 0 20 0 25
Do. Of common stuff, per do. 0 17 0 20
Racks done in the best manner, the spars morticed in, per foot running, 0 50 0 67
Do. Done in the common way, per foot running, 0 37 0 42
Lintels over cellar doors, dressed each, 0 50 1 00
Hewing of cedar or locust posts, for cellar steps, &c. per foot running, 0 06 0 06
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Cedar or locust lintels dressed in best manner each, 1 00 1 50
Charge for all circular four prices.
N.B. all kinds of hewing (sawed stuff excepted) to be charged for by the time spent in labour.
One square of flooring will take of 10 feet boards.
24 Ten feet boar 5 guage
20 do. 6 do.
17 do. 7 do. 10 inches wandted
15 do. 8 do.
13 do. 9 do. 2 feet 6 inshes wandted
12 do. 10 do.
One square of flooring will take of 12 feet boards.
20 Twelve feet board, at 5 inch guage
14 do. 6 do. 4 feet wanted
12 do. 7 do. 2 do.
11 do. 8 do. 4 do.
do. 9 do. 1 do.
10 do. 10 do.


In any case required, from a room of 9 feet square to a room of 60 feet square.
A room 9 feet square will require a chimney 2 feet 3 inches wide, by 3 feet high: --Then, supposing the room to be 12 feet square, the proportion will be as 4 to 1; that is, the width of the chimney will be 2 feet 6 inches, by 3 feet and 3-4 of an inch high; so that every foot the room increases in size must be added one inch to the width of the chimney, and 1-4 of an inch for the height. If the room be 27 feet square, the chimney 3 feet 9 inches wide, by 3 feet 4 1-2 inches high, and so on in proportion for any square room.
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Suppose a room 24 feet by 30 feet, add the length and breadth together, and take half that sum for the square of the square of the room, being 30 feet, which chimney must be 4 feet wide, and 8 feet 5 1-4 inches high.
Suppose a room to be large enough to require two chimnies, I will say 40 feet wide by 60 feet long; add the length and breadth together, which is 100 feet, take half of that, which is 50 feet and 2 chimnies of a room 50 feet square, will do for a room 60 by 40, that is 5 feet in width, and 4 feet and 1-2 an inch, the height for each chimney, and so for any other.


To give the proper light, not too glaring nor too dark.
Multiply the length of the room by the breadth, and that product by the height, and out of the last product extract the square root, which root will be the proper light for the room, and must be divided into a many parts as the room will admit windows.
Suppose the room to be 24 feet by 18, the product will be 432, and multiplied by the height (12 feet) that product will be 5184, whose square root is 72, which will admot of 3 windows, containing 24 feet each.
This is a general rule for any room.
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SHIP JOINER'S WORK, &c. Of laying platform decks and putting up births in a vessels hold.
$ ¢
For laying down joists and 2 inch floor on do. Not plained, per square 2 50
For putting up births for two persons to lay in, with upwrights and cross spalls of 3 by 4 inch scantling, bottom and birth boards for each birth 0 75
If double for four men each 1 25
For bulk heads rough per square, 2 50
If plained and square joints per do. 3 00
If plained on both sides per do. 3 50
If do. On both, tongued and grooved, per do. 4 25
For building booby hatch rough 2 50
If plained and dovetailed 5 50
A caboos house of common size made rough such as temporary, each 8 00
Do. The plank plained and jointd, 11 00
Do. Plained and tongued and grooved done in best manner, 18 50
A binnacle finished in the common way, measuring the companionway, sides and stationary part of the top, per foot superficial, 0 50
And for each slide, 2 50
For each set of doors, 4 34
If done in the best manner yer foot, 0 60
Do. For each slide, do. 3 50
Do. For each set of doors, 6 25
Companion steps plain, per step, 0 75
If done in best manner, per do. 0 50
Casing and carlens per foot superficial, 0 14
Ceiling and forming pannels between carlens, done in the customary way, per foot superficial, 0 10
All ceiling to lockers and shelving to do. Straight work, per do. 0 12
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Do. Cylinder, do. 0 37
All plain casings of carlens or imposts and transomes and counterposts which are beviled, per foot superficial, 0 30
If finished with pilaster on do. Per foot extra, 0 12
All caseings that are straight and 4 inches and not more than 8 inches wide, per foot running 0 10
If beviled, or oblique angles, do. 0 13
All births finished with pannel birth boards, finished in best manner for each, 7 50
Small cornice mouldings for curtains per foot running, 0 17
If any of the heretofore mentioned work shall be done with mahogany, add one third
Cabin window sash, 4 lights per light, 0 33
Dead lights made and fitted each, 1 50
Laying of cabin floors, per foot, 0 8

All other work in proportion to the foregoing prices.
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We, the subscribers, having taken it into consideration that the inhabitants of Richmond, Manchester, and the adjacent neighborhood, have laboured under many disadvantages in consequence of their being no established Rules for Measuring Stone Masons' Work: in order that all parties may mutually understand each other, the following mode of taking dimensions and ascertaining the quantity of stone work, has been agreed upon by the master Masons in the City of Richmond and its vicinity, viz.
1. All walls above 18 inches thick, or under, to be taken and rated as 18 inches in all cases whatever.
2. All walls above 18 inches, to be allowed for the excess or calculated thus--the length by the height, and by the thickness, allowing 24 feet cubic measure, for each perch of masons work.
3. All openings of 8 feet or under, to be taken and rated as solid work, and no deduction made.
4. All openings above eight feet wide, to be deducted, and the jams or returns added to the length.
5. All partitions or party walls measuring on one side, and if broken, the end or the return taken and added to the length.
6. All flat door or window arches, the stone shaped and rough hammered, rated at 87 d[c]ents per foot extra.
7. Counter arches, if any, at $1.00 per piece extra, if of the common dimensions.
8. Circular arches, under 8 feet span, measured extra, after being measured as plain work, and then to be girted once and a half, allowing 70 cents per cubic foot. All large arches, over five feet, to be paid for, both work and materials, by the perch, at double the price of plain work.
9. Chimneys and chimney breasts measured as follows; chimney breast, with a single flue, to be girted once and a half round, which shall make the length by one foot six inches thick in all cases.
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10. Chimney breasts with two flues or more, to be measured in the same manner as above, adding a girt for each additional flue, in all cases.
11. A chimney stack, single flue, to be girted all round and a half: if two flues or more, an additional girt for each flue, which will constitute the length by the height, and one foot six inches thick in all cases.
12. Topping chimneys above the roof, girted all round and a half, if single flue; if more, one girt taken and added for each flue, which shall constitute the length by the height, and one foot six inches thick in all cases.
13. Colverts and acqueducts as follows: all openings of 3 feet or under, to be rated as solid work; all openings above 3 feet to be deducted, and covering stone as agreed per foot, running measure.
14. All buildings, where the corners are carried to a plumb, girted all around for length, and no deduction made.
15. All cellar walls, where the corners are not above ground, the thickness of two walls deducted.
16. All abutments or piers, not exceeding 8 feet in length, to be girted once and a half round, which shall make the length by the height, and one foot six inches thick, if circular, girted twice round.
17. All piers above 8 feet, the end or return taken and added to the length, which shall make the length by the height, by the thickness, if circular, once and a half round the circular part.
18. All reveals or recess jambs, per foot as agreed on by the parties.
19. Setting door or window sills, per peice as agreed on by do.
20. Door or window sills, if hammered, per peice as agreed on by the parties.
21. Turning tremour arches and laying hearths, of common dimensions, per peice as agreed on by do.
22. Setting steps, as so much as agreed on by do.
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23. All walls brought to a level, shall measure one foot above, for the trouble of leveling.
24. It is understood that all mortered walls are to be pointed on one side.


In measuring ovens, coppers, or other works of that kind, take the whole dimensions in cubic feet and deduct the ash-hole only; then multiply by eight, and divide by nine, which reduces it into one brick and half work.
To construct an oven to heat with coals let the frame and door be about a foot square, like a copper door, and the bars about 18 or 20 inches long, and level with the bottom of the oven; and let the flue be about 18 inches square, for the fire to shoot slanting into the oven at the shoulder, so as the fire to fly right up the crown and center, and spread to the haunches and all round, and let a register be fixed in the flue, and the copper to be fixed five or six inches on or over the furnace, so as not to get too hot, as warm water is always wanted in a bakehouse; let a register be fixed within a little of the flues entering the oven, and rise slanting, which, being stopped, when the oven is heated enough goes into the funnel or chimney of the oven.
The height of the crown of a twelve bushel oven should not be less than 12 inches, nor more than 20 inches, nor should rise less than 3 inches higher
Page 39
than the top of the oven frame, and not exceed 4 inches.
As I have mentioned measuring ovens, it is not improper to mention how to measure angle chimneys, Multiply the height of the story by half the breast or front of the chimney, and that product by the number of half bricks contained in the inches of the half breadth of the front or breast, and divide this last product by three, and the quotient will be the true reduced contents, out of which must be deducted the opening of the fire place as in other square chimneys. If the chimney does not stand equal from each corner or angle at both sides, or the angle be not square, lay out the angle with the rods parallel with the walls, and take one side of the angle, and multiply by the hight of the story, and half the other side of the angle for the thickness.

Ft. Ins. Deduct opening 3 ft.
9 6 height of room Square 3
9 6 half the breast ___
4 9 One foot 6 inches 9
28 6 Or 2 brick deep,
____ being 4 half brick 4
33 3 ____
9 half bricks Divide 3)36
___ ____
3)299 12
2 Thirds of a foot), or 8 inches
3(99 1
8 inches odd
_____ _____
99 9
99 9
12 Deduct opening
87 9 Contents, of reduced brickwork as required

Page 40



This is a new invention of about nine years, and progressively improved upon since, and proves to be a good and cheap substitute for lead, copper, slate, tile, &c. and when well laid has never been known to want repair. It is lighter than lead, slate, or tile, and requires only in roofs an inch to the foot, but less will do, and half an inch to the foot in gutters sloping descent, consequently takes considerably less timber and brick-work. It forms roofs and gutters in one mass, requiring no lead, the sheets, (which are four feet, by two feet three inches) solder together at the edges, with solder of the same without raised joints or drip. The roof to be covered with half inch boards, and the tessera lies thereon; it neither cracks, shrinks, warps, nor leaks, and withstands frost and snow as well as heat. Experiments were made before a body of magistrates and surveyors. (upwards of fifty) by lighting fire tinder and upon it, when their approbation was decided and unanimous, that it did not ignite. The fire-offices insure buildings covered with it at the usual rates. Flat roofs and floors may be walked upon, under the most fervant sun in the East or West Indies. It is an admirable flooring for barns, granaries, dog-kennels, damp cellars, &c. being always dry and free from mould; nor can rats or mice pervade it; it is also well calculated for covering arched vaults and ice-houses, because it does not corrode like lead or copper. Its weight is 4 to 4 and a quarter lbs. to the foot superficial, consequently one square weighs from 400 to 425 lbs. A ton will cover five squares, or fifty six square yards.
The price in London is 7d. per foot delivered at the wharf, or laid down, if 200 feet and upwards at 9d. per foot. Under 200 and above 100 feet, 10d.
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under 100 feet 11d. per foot. If gutters only 12d. per foot, gutters more than 200 feet 10d. per foot, and for floors 11d. per foot; coals and cartage, additional charges, also mens extra expences if the place be not ready.

From a New-York Paper,
A discovery made not long since.


1. Many vessels sheathed with zinc, have performed voyages from New-York to the West Indies, to Europe, round cape horn, and elsewhere. Some have been hove down, after being sheathed 12 or 18 months, and the zinc has been found in the best possible order.
In sheathing vessels, zinc must be used, and placed at three or three and a quarter inches distant in the center, and at one inch on the edges, and tared paper must be put between zinc and plank.
2. Rust does not attack zinc; sea weeds nor barnacles do not attach to it.
3. Zinc may be applied to sheath iron fastened vessels, where copper cannot be used. Copper, by its corrosive properties, destroys in a short time every piece of iron in the composition of a vessel; and, notwithstanding the precaution that is taken in sheathing iron fastened vessels with copper, by driving the heads of the nails half an inch or more into the planks, and to cover them with putty, they are not the less affected by the copper, and the largest nails are frequently reduced to the size of a small needle.
4. Zinc. and iron agree perfectly together, and
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there is no danger that one metal be the least affected by the other.
5. Pieces of zinc have been kept for two years under salt water, and at the expiration of that time they were not corroded.
6. Wood sheathing is soon worm eaten; vessels sheathed thus require, at every voyage, expences and time. Zinc wears about as long as copper.
7. Zinc nails are made, and used in zinc sheathings.
8. Mr. Francis Gantz and Mr. Robert Brown, ship builders, in this city, who have a sheathed a number of vessels, may give further information if applied for.
On the application of Zinc for covering Houses, &c
9. Many houses have been covered with zinc in New-York; some of which more than three years since; among which the new Panorama or Rotunda, and part of the college in the new wings, and the zinc is now as sound as the day it was put on. For these last years past, in Europe, a great many houses have been covered with zinc, to the satisfaction of the owners; and, lately in two new play houses, erected at Brussels and Leige, and also a palace at Tervure, for the prince royal of Holland. A model of those roofs, and also of other ways of covering, may be seen at No. 135, Pearl street.
10. Zinc stands all kinds of weather, and does not crack like lead and copper.
11. Zinc roofs require but a slight frame, this kind of cover being light itself; and may be made nearly flat, to walk upon, or put on anything to dry, &c. if desirable. Zinc roofs and not subject, as slate and tile ones, to leak by the effect of frost, and of the heat, by a fall of heavy hail, the throwing of stonea, &c.
12. Where the roof is not of zinc, this metal may be strongly recommended for the hips, valleys, ridges and round the dormant windows, scuttles, chimnies, &c. where lead is, generally applied. Zinc costs
Page 43
half price, and is infinitely better than lead, and instead of shingles on the flat roofs of houses and stores, zinc is adviseable. It has been very much used in New-York for the above purposes.
13. Zinc is also used in lining cisterns, bathing tubs, making house gutters, gutter leaders, and gutters under ground, garden watering pots, measures for liquor; in fine, zinc is used in almost all cases where copper, tin, or lead may be employed and solders as well as any other metal.
14. Zinc is used in Europe for coffee pots and other kitchen furniture; therefore, the water that runs on roofs, or thus passes through gutters of that metal, is out affected by that.
15. Zinc in sheets is as malleable as copper and tin, but if wanted to have it folded that, as it could be done with a peice of paper or cloth, let such part required to be so folded, be heated some, to prevent any small crack.
16. Old zinc will fetch about half price to be used by the brass founders.
An estimate, made by professional persons entitled to full credit, showing that a building covered with zinc costs less than a similar one covered with slates, besides the cover of zinc is so superior for durability and tightness, it wants no repairs.

The probable expences of preparing for, and covering with slate the roof of a house 25 feet front and 30 deep, is as follows:
Rise of said roof l-3 of the depth or 16 feet 2-3.
Bricks, and laying the same for the two end walls, 12,509 at $15 per thousand $187.50
Stone, coping and anchors for the wall 70.00
Timber, 2,900 feet, at 16s. per hundred 58.00
Plank 144 at 2s., days work 34 at 14s. 50 cwt nails at 1s. 101.75
Carting timber and plank 7.00
Lead for the ridge and chimnies 25.00
1,420 square feet surface to be covered with slates at the rate of $12 per hundred feet 170.40

The probable expences of preparing for, and covering with zinc the roof of a house 25 feet in front and 50 feet deep, is as follows--
Rise of said roof one fifth of the depth, or 10 feet, this is called a pediment roof, and is considered at the handsomest.
Bricks, and laying the same for the two end walls, 7,500 at $15 per thousand $112.50
Stone, coping and anchors for the wall 52.00
Timber, 1,950 feet, at 16s. per hundred 39.00
Plank 120 at 2s., 30 days work at 14s. 40 lbs. nails at 1s. 87.50
Carting timber and plank 5.00
1,278 square feet surface to be covered with zinc; 213 to be added in zinc, being 1-6 for lapping, &c. 1491 square feet of zinc, weighing 16 oz. each and making 1491 lbs. at 16 cents per pound 238.56
Workmen to put said zinc on 40.00
Nails for zinc and strips 4.00
Planks for strips, and fixing the same 10.00
Deduct of 2 chimney tops, 6 feet of each, as they will be so much lower than a slate roof. making 1800 bricks at $15 27.00
A zinc roof costs less than a slate one, $58.09.
A zinc roof may be made yet flatter, and by that to save more walls, tops of chimnies, and timber.
The above may be had in any quantity by application to
Page 45

The customary way of measuring Plastering in Richmond.

Multiply the length by the breadth and divide by nine, that is to say, a ceiling or wall to be 22 feet by 18 feet, multiply those two numbers together, the product by 9 which is the number of square feet in a square yard.
Where the employer furnishes the materials there is no deduction for windows, doors or other openings, if the workman furnish materials, doors, windows and other openings are deducted, or rather a deduction is made for materials, but the workman is paid the same price for such openings for his trouble as if the materials was furnished by the employer.
Plastering done with 3 coats, 33 cents per square yard, do. Done with 2 coats 25 cents do.
Lathing per yard 17 cents.
Stucco cornices from 25 to 37 cents per foot running measure.
At the above prices the workmen furnishes all materials.
If the employer furnish materials, the workman is paid for his labour 6 cents per yard for each coat of plaster and 6 for lathing per yard.-When you take the dimensions of a side wall, take the length from wall to wall, and then from top of the base or washboard to the ceiling.



Lime, or calcareous earth, predominates in most stones which are soft enough to be scratched with a knife.
Page 46
These are chalk, lime-stone, marble, spars, gypsum, or plaster-stone, and various others. As the lime is most frequently combined with carbonic acid, it is usual for mineralogists to drop a small quantity of nitric acid upon the stones they are desirous of classing; and if they froth by the escape of the acid, the conclude that lime enters into the composition. To obtain pure calcareous earth, pow-chalk must be repeatedly boiled in water, which will deprive it if the saline impurities it frequently contains. It must then be dissolved in distilled vinegar, and precipitated by the addition of concrete volatile alkali. The precipitate, when well washed and dried, will consist of lime united to carbonic acid; the latter of which may be driven off by heat, if necessary.
If chalk, marble, lime-stone, spar, or any other specimens of this earth, containing carbonic acid, be exposed to continued ignition, they give out carbonic acid and water, to the amount of nearly half their weight. The remainder, consisting chiefly of lime, has a strong tendency to combination, and attracts water very powerfully. The addition of water to lime produces a very considerable heat attended with noise, and agitation of the parts, which break asunder; a considerable vapour arises, which carries up with it part of the lime; and a phosphoric light is seen, if the experiment be made in the dark. Lime thus saturated with water is said to slaked. Water dissolves about one five-hundredth part of its weight of lime, and is then called lime-water. This solution has an acrid taste, and turns syrup of violets to a green colour. If lime-water be exposed to the open-air, the lime attracts carbonic acid. And is by this means converted into chalk; which, not being soluble in water, forms a crust on the surface, formerly called cream of lime, which, when of a certain thickness, breaks, and falls to the bottom: and in this way the whole of the lime will in time be separated. If the fire have been too violent in the burning of lime, the stones become hard, sonorous, and incapable of absorbing water with the requisite degree of avidity.
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This effect seems to arise from part of the calcareous earth having entered into fusion with the clay, flint, or other contaminating earths, with which it forms a glass that covers and defends the rest.
The paste of lime and water, called mortar, had a degree of adhesion and ductility, though much less than clay. When dry, it is more or less friable, like chalk. A mixture of sand, or broken earthen vessels, greatly increases its firmness, which it seems to effect by rendering it more difficult for the parts to be removed with respect to each other. When mortar is left to dry by the gradual evaporation of its superfluous water, it is very long before it obtains its utmost degree of firmness. But if dry quick-lime be mixed with mortar, it gradually absorbs the superfluous water, and the mass becomes solid in a very short time. See MORTAR.
Lime has an affinity for tanning, whence it is probable that a portion of it is retained in taned leather perhaps not to the improvement of its quality. It has an edulcorative power with respect to animal oils, by combining with the putrid gelatine in them; but its action on them in forming a soap is too strong to admit of its being used for this purpose with advantage, unless in small quantities. Feathers, however, may be very conveniently cleaned, by steeping three or four days in strong lime-water, and afterward washing and drying them.
Though infusible in the strongest heats of our furnaces, it is nevertheless as a very powerful flux with regard to mixtures of the other earth. These are all fusible by a proper addition of lime. Compounds are still more fusible; for any three of the five well-known earths may be fused into perfect glass, if they be mixed together in equal portions, provided the calcareous be one of them.
The earthy part of animals is chiefly, if not altogether, calcareous; in most cases it is united with phosphoric acid, but frequently with the carbonic.
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The common form in which limestone is found is that of combination with the acid of Charcoal, or fixed air. The lime is obtained in a caustic state by exposure to a high degree of heat, whereby the carbonic acid is drawn off in the state of gas, or air. It is then called quick lime, and in that condition is employed in husbandry and the arts. After having been deprived of its fixed air, the lime is constantly, though slowly regaining it from the atmosphere and all other bodies with which the lime comes in contact, and capable of furnishing it; but quick lime must be previously moistened to enable it to unite with the air, according to Kirwan, 100 parts of quick lime, absorb about 28 of water; and to regain its full portion of air from the atmosphere, it requires a year or more if not purposely spread out.
Pure lime says Dr. Anderson, when fully calcined and slaked, is reduced to a fine impalpable powder, of a bright white, that feels soft between the fingers, without the smallest tendency to grittiness, when it has any colour, it proceeds from sand or other foreign matters in the composition.
If the limestone loses much of its weight in calcinations, and the lime shells are extremely light; if the shells require a very large portion of water to slake then fully; if it is long before they begin to fall; if the limestone is not apt to run (or be vitrified) in the operation of burning; if it fall entirely when it gets a sufficient quantity of water, after it has been properly calcined, if it swell very much in slaking, and if the lime is light, fine to the touch, and of a pure white, we may be satisfied that it is extremely good and may use it in preference to any other lime, that is inferior to it in any other respect.
N.B. Shell lime although good for building; yet it is not proper for plastering either inside or outside; for on the outside it blisters, and is of various colours, from the dampness it imbibes from the salt water; and for the same reason it can neither take paint, or is it proper to paper on.
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The chief uses of limestone are,
1. As an ingredient in mortar, to cement brick or stone buildings; for which purpose being divested of its humidity, and its pores being at the same time opened by the action of the fire, it is so eminently calculated that it may easily be reduced to powder, and mixed with sand or other matters &c.
2. As a manure of which I shall here take no notice, as it belongs more properly to an agricultural work, &c.
Quick lime is also of great utility in rending rocks and stones, when mixed with gun powder, in the proportion of one pound of the former, well dried and pulverized, to two pounds of the latter, this singular property of lime was discovered and is related by H. D. Griffith Esq. in the 8 vol. of the transactions of the Bath and West of England Society, when he states that the mixture above specified, caused an explosion with a force equal to three pounds of gunpowder; hence in those operations, one third of the expence may be saved.
Lime water is an excellent remedy for a broken winded horse, &c.
I must beg excuse of my readers for intruding so long, and having been so particular about lime, it being a most principle ingredient in building as also a medicine, and generally the least taken notice of; but, simple as it may seem, several eminent gentlemen, have not thought it beneath their notice to write volumes, on that most useful article.
And among other great and useful properties of lime; the following is not the least, I must beg leave to mention it.
Most coal mines are interrupted by what the colliers term damp, which is only an excess of hydrogen gas, which often take fire from the lighted candles attempted to be introduced into the work; the damp then burns with a blue flame and explosions ensue, and very often the miners at work and the winders at the mouth of the pit fall victims to the catastrophe.
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This damp makes the miners heavy and sleepy, and impossible to keep in their lights. In this situation nothing further need be done, but to slake half a bushel or a bushel of lime fresh burnt, in the level or passage made by the miners in digging out the coals. The carbonic acid of which will correct the air in the works, and make it favourable to inhalation and combustion, and the miners will be able to proceed in their works. The prevalence of the damp in coal mines is so general, and its effects so dangerous by privation of lives, that the success of applying a certain and cheap remedy could not be too generally known, and worthy a corner in the Builder's Price Book.


The real Dutch Terras is the king of all cements hitherto found out for use under water; its properties are such, that a short time after two stones, or the hardest of bricks are joined together by rubbing them close, like glue, between two joints of boards and put them into water, whether sea or fresh, you will find the brick, or stone, sooner break than the cement.
Necessity, dire necessity only, which is the mother of all inventions was the original cause of the Dutch finding it necessary, and first using of Terras. Their immense mounds and sluices to oppose the encroachments of the sea, they found, by experience, must be built with something more durable than any cement or mortar made with chalk or shells; and having no stone in the country, they brought some from a mountain, which, to all appearance, had been some ages ago a volcano, the stone of which was already partly pulverized, and which lay at a place called Audenach, in the country of Hesse, and bordering on the river Rhine, which runs partly through their country, and being all brought by water carriage, came very cheap.
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It is to be presumed the Dutch had visited Italy, and that some of their builders or architects had been there, and noticed the works of the ancients at Venice, Naples, Rome, &c. and had observed, that they had made use of as a cement, Puzzolian, or Puzzolina stone, from the burning mountains of Vesuvius and Etna, was burnt and made into mortar or cement. This, I suppose, induced them to search for, and bring their stone from the worn out volcano before mentioned in Hesse, to make their cement or Terras, for their water works and foundations, which are chiefly under water. In time, the owner of the mountain, finding the great demand of this stone, raise the price.
About the year 1750, an ingenious mechanic at Dort, a great part of which province was drowned by an inundation of the sea in the year 1446, and about 100,000 persons drowned, which country lies more exposed than any other of the Seven Provinces, whose immense mounds and sluices consume vast quantities of this cement called Terras. This ingenious mechanic tried an experiment of a substitute for this Hessian stone, which he found to answer to admiration. He then went to the owner of the Hessian mountain, and told him he could make as good Terras without his stone, but offered to take all his stone at about then then present price. The stone merchant well knowing there was no stone in Holland, or in any of the Seven Provinces, refused totally his offer, and even made another advance on his stone.
The mechanic returned to Dort, made Terras of the substitute which he found at home, obtained a patent of the states for 15 years for no other Terras to be used in any of the Dutch provinces, he sold it cheaper, it was proved to be better, and the mechanic made an immense fortune.
This substitute is to be found in every maritime country and the author of this work is able to point out the whole process of making it equal to the Dutch.
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To make Terras properly for use, as a water cement, mix fresh burnt lime, not slaked too much (and if stone lime the better,) and to every bushel of real Dutch Terras add 2 lime, as little water as possible, and well beat it with beaters, on a wood or stone floor.


In a general sense, is any composition of a glutinous or tenacious nature, proper to bind, unite, or keep things in cohesion.
There are several sorts of cement; a glue for wood, some for water-work, others for fire-work; others again, to bind or unite a block of bricks or stone together for carving, scrolls, capitals, &c. &c. This latter is of two sorts: the hot cement is made of resin, bees'-wax, brick dust, and chalk boiled together. The bricks must be rubbed square and even on a rubbing stone, and heated and rubbed together after with the cement between them, like two planed boards glued--the closer the better. The cold cement is made of old Cheshire cheese, grated very small, mixed with milk, quicklime, and white of eggs. The brick to be rubbed square and even, as before.
Glass powdered, sea salt and iron filings, in equal quantities, mixed with good loam, make hard and durable cement.
Cement to mend broken china or glass: take the juice of garlic, tamped in a stone mortar; this carefully applied will join the parts so close as scarcely to be perceived.
Another cement for the above purpose is, by heating the white of an egg very clear, and mixing it with pounded stone lime unslaked, sifted through a
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piece of muslin, or silk, or isinglass and lime, as above mentioned, mixed together, and a little water added; the mended articles are to be set in the shade to dry, and not before a fire. Oyster-shells, calcined, mixed, beat, and sifted, as above, will also, when made into a kind of thin paste, hold china, glass, or earthen ware, by being, when set or mended pressed together for a few minutes.
Oyster-shells calcined, well pounded, and sifted through muslin or silk, and then ground on a hard stone till reduced to powder, make a paste or glue: with this, any thing may be joined of hard substance and holding it close seven or eight minutes to dry, it will stand both heat and water. Any small hole or crack may be stopped in the same manner.
A strong cement for wood, stone, earthen-ware and glass: let thin shavings of sweet cheese be stirred with boiling water; and when the tenacious slime has been worked with other hot water, let it be mixed on a hot stone, with a proper quantity of unslaked stone lime, pounded and sifted very fine, into the consistency of a paste: it is a most strong and durable cement, and when dry it will not be affected by water.
A strong and useful cement for joining marble, alabaster, porphyry, and all other hard stones: melt two pounds of bees'-wax, and one point of resin; then add one pound and a half of the same kind of matter pulverized (burnt) as the body to be cemented is composed of , well pounded and sifted, and stirred well together; let the whole mass be kneaded in water, and heated when applied to the heated parts of the body to be cemented. The colour of this mass or cement may be adapted to that of the body on which it is employed, by varying the proportion of the powdered matter added to the bees'-wax and resin.
Cement to mend cracked chymical glasses. Take equal quantities of wheat flour, fine powdered Venice glass, and pulverized chalk, one half of the same
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quantity of fine brick dust, and a little scaped lint, mix them altogether with the whites of eggs, spread this mixture on a peice of linen cloth, and apply it to the cracks of the glass, but remember to dry the glasses well before the cement is applied.
A cement for jewellers. Ingredients, an equal quantity in weight of fine brick dust cleanly sifted in a lawn seive, resin and bees'-wax; this keeps the metals to be engraven or wrought upon firm to the block, and also to fill up what is to be chiselled.
Dr. Higgins had a patent in 1779, now expired, for his invention of a water cement, or stucco, as follows; fifty-six pounds of purse coarse sand, forty-tow pounds of pure fine sand, mix them together, and moisten them thoroughly with lime water; to the wetted sand add fourteen pounds of pure fresh burnt lime, and, while beating them up together, fourteen pounds of bone-ash; the quicker and more perfectly these materials are beaten together, and the sooner used, the better will the cement be. Fine sand alone, or coarse sand alone, will do for some works; but the fine the sand, the more lime must be used.
Dr. Williams, in 1780 (term expired) had a patent for the invention of a new mortar or stucco, as follows; to twelve pounds of pure lime add ten pounds of water, eighty four pounds of pure coarse sand, and four pounds of grated skimmed milk cheese; let the whole be worked up together, and used as soon as possible after. Care must be taken in using this mortar, that the bricks are perfectly dry that are to be covered with it, and in laying it on the greater the impression the better.
To make an exceedingly strong cement, which is scarcely inferior to stone; take lime well slaked, and sand in equal quantities, temper it with linseed oil to the consistency of mortar; beat it well on a stone or wood floor, or in a trough, and then spread it on a wall to a competent thickness, and it will become as hard as stone, and last for ages.
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If dials are to be formed of the above cement against old stone or brick walls, let the face be chipped away a bit, with a bricklayers hammer, or a malet and chisel, and drench it well with white lead and linseed oil, til it will drink no more.
Boyles Work's abridged, Vol. 1


Mortar, a preparation of lim and sand mixed up with water, which serves as a cement, and is used by masons and bricklayers in building walls of stone and brick.
Mortar, when well made, and of the best materials, becomes as hard as stone, and adhereing very strongly to the surfaces of the stones which it is employed to cement, the whole wall is as one single stone. To obtain this end the lime should be very pure. Earl Stanhope, who has made many experiments on this substance, found that almost every thing depends upon the burning of the lime; it must be almost vitrified to be comletely free from the carbonic acid, and then reduced to fine powder: the sand should be free from clay, and partly in the state of fine sand, and partly in that of gravel; the water should be pure, but if saturated with lime so much the better. The best proportions are said to be three parts of fine sand, four of the coarser kind, one part of quicklime, and as little water as may be. The stony consistence of mortar is partly owing to the absorption of carbonic acid, and partly to the combination of part of the water with the lime; hence if to common and well made mortar, one-fourth part of unslaked lime reduced to powder, be added, the mortar when dry acquires much greater solidy than it would otherwise. Morveau has given the following proportions.
Fine sand 30
Cement of well baked bricks 30
Slaked Lime 20
Unslaked Lime 20
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The ancients had a very hard kind of mortar, it being impossible to separate some of their buildings, though some ascribed that strength to time and the influence of the air. The ancient lime was burnt from the hardest stones or fragments of marble.
N.B. The mortar or cement made with the Barrow and Welsh lime, and with the proper mixture is equallly hard, strong, and durable as the above, and cannot be separated from the brick or stone without a part adhering to it.
Fine sand makes weak mortar, and the founder the sand the stronger the mortar; therefore washed sand is the best, and dirty foul water weakens the mortar.
Vitruvius prescribes three parts pit-sand, and two of river sand, to one of lime, but in this the sand appears to be overloaded.
The best of proportion appears to be thirty-six to thirty-five, but equal quantities of each make exceeding good mortar, and especially if washed sand, or sharp river sand.
Mortar for water courses, cisterns, &c. Is made of lime and hogs lard, sometimes mixed with juice of figs, or with liquid pitch. Which is first slaked with wine, and after application, washed over with linseed oil.
Mortar for furnaces. &c. Is made of red clay, wrought in water where horse-dung and soot have been steeped, by which a salt is communicated to the water, that binds the clay and makes it fit to endurethe fire. The clay ought not to be too fat, lest it should be subject to chinks, nor too lean and sandy lest it should not bind enough.
Mortar used for inside of refining vessels. Is made of quick lime and ox blood, the lime being first beaten to a powder, and sifted, then mixed with the blood, and beat with a beater.
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Mortar for sun dials on walls. Is made of lime and sand, tempered with linseed oil, and spread on a wall will become hard as a stone, and remain years.
Another mortar for ditto. Take five or six gallons of brook sand dried and sifted through a fine seive, and mix with it about the same quantity of sifted lime, and a gallon of boring gun dust, sifted also, mix these well together with six or seven gallons of skimmed milk, and two quarts of linseed oil, lay this on the wall, first well wetted with milk, and keep it often sprinkled with milk as laying on smooth it well with a trowel, and mix hair with it to prevent cracking.
Mortar for floors, walls, ceilings, &c. Temper ox blood and fine clay together, and lay it on a floor, as in Italy, and it will soon become hard and binding. Two parts of waste soap ashes, and one part lime, one of loam and one of sand, maker a good mortar.
Black glazing for pantiles. Eighteen measures of lead ashes, three of iron filings, three of copper ashes, and two of zoffer, this will be a brown black, add zoffer to make it blacker.
Blue glazing ditto. One pound of lead ashes, two of clear sand, two of salt, one of white calcined tartar, sixteen of Venice or other glass, half a pound of zoffer, mix them well, and melt them several times, quenching them always with cold water; to have it fine, put it into a glass furnace for a day or two.


Being a sure method to restore Cast Iron Furnaces, Soap and Dyers' Pans, Cauldrons, or other large Castings which may get cracked or split.
Take new fresh burnt stone lime, slack it (or pount it well without slaking,) and fine sift it, mix it up with whites of eggs, and beasts' blood, and well beat it to a consistency of mortar or putty (but put not water to it.) Then add some iron file dust, or the clinkers or flag of a forge finely pounded and sifted; mix and beat all this up together, and with this paste fill up, in, or on the inside, the crack or split in the iron in casting; be careful to well stop it in, so that it presses through, if the crack goes through, keeping it rather full or swelling with a bead or seam in the inside and in a few days it will become hard, and fit for use as ever, and be as durable as any other part.


Take two parts of wood ashes, three of stone lime, and one of fine drift sand, these must be all sifted and mixed together, then beat them in a trough or planked florr, with wooden mallets or beaters
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for three days and nigth incessantly, keeping it sprinkled alternately with a little oil and also water, till it becomes of a due consistence for use. With this mixture their arches, cisterns, and acqueducts are plastered all over, especially the inside, about half an inch thick, whether made of brick or stone. With this mixture they also make their terraces on the tops of their houses or elsewhere.
To join the pipes of the aqueducts, they use tow and stone lime beat together with oil only, till of a proper consistence for use. Both these compositions soon grow as hard as stone, and suffer not water to prevade them.
The above is the way to make the cement which the Carthagenians used for the aqueducts, arches, terraces, or other buildings to receive or oppose water.
In Persia, and many other places in the East, the roofs of their houses are nearly flat, and are covered with the following cement, or composition, instead of lead, which is impervious to all rain, and dries nearly as hard as stone, without cracking; and not a drop of rain can ooze through.
The composition is nothing more than shell llime well burnt, and molasses, of each an equal quantity, mixed and worked up into a paste, or stiff mortar, with oil and spread it on the roof with a smoothing wooden instrument, not much unlike a plasterer's trowell, but pressed down hard and smooth as possible.
Where the molasses are not to be had, they use some other of such resinous substance.
They also add to the shell-lime some kind of acid, impressed from plants, and mixed with tar into the consistency of dough for bread, and laid on and pressed down as before.


Crude limestone is used in making hearths for iron furnaces; the scaly is best, and some of the grained next.
Cement for furnaces wants phlogistion, and not acid; it should not be of earth in which iron is too much in a metallic state, or too much calcined. Clinkers of a forge well beaten with lime and sand are a proper compound.


C. David, PRINT.
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Architraves 14
Boxes and Bed Mould Eves 12
Base and Surbase 13
Beaufet Doors 19
Cornice 11 & 12
Centers 28
Cellar Doors, Ceiling Piazzas, and Clock Pin Rails 29
Covering Walls, Counters 30
Chimneys for Rooms 33
Cement 53
ditto 58
ditto, Anticient, ditto. for Furnaces, &c 59
Door and Window Frames 16
Doors and Partitions 26
Drawers 31
Framing 7
Framing Roofs 8
ditto. Warehouses 9
Frontispieces 22
Flooring 23
Fencing 26
Flat Roofs 27
Gutters &c. Gates 28
Linings and Soffits 14
Lime &c. 46
Shingling and Lathing 10
Mouldings 14
Mantle Pieces 19
Maleable Zinc 41
Mortar 56
Ovens &c. 39
Pilasters for Chimneys &c. 20
Pediments 21
Plasterer's Work &c. 46
Quoin Casings 15
Racks and Mangers 32
Shutters 15
Sashes 17
Stairs 24
Shelving 30
Ship Joiners Work 35
Stone Masons Work 37
Terras 51
Venetian Blinds 31
Weatherboarding 10
Window Frames 16
Window and Trap Doors 11
Wainscoat 20
Wooden Bricks, and Well Curbs 32