A List of Taxable property within the District of John Metcalfe Commissioner of the Revenue in the Corporation of Fredericksburg for the year 1847.

Line Persons chargeable Slaves Horses Carriages Stages Carryalls Gigs Watches Clocks Pianos Plate Attny Physn Dentist Int,Bonds Income Newspapers Tax Line
    >12           Gold Patent Other Metal Other                    
1 Alexander, Rob. H. 1 1 1 1.44 1
2 Alexander, Jno. B. 2 1 1 1 1.49 2
3 Ames, Michael 4 1 2.28 3
4 Allen, Jeremiah 1 1 .44 4
5 Allen, Richard 1 1 1 .82 5
6 Adams, John 1 .25 6
7 Allen, William 5 75 2 1 325 20 800 18.15 7
8 Appler, Jacob E. 2 1 1 1.39 8
9 Aler, George 1 1 1.32 9
10 Adams, Andrew B. 1 1 1 .94 10
11 Ames, Mrs. 1 .32 11
12 Alexander, Fielding 1 .12 12
13 Atkins, Layton Y. 1 1.00 13
14 Bradley, Jas. H. 2 1 1 1.89 14
15 Blankman, Michael 2 1 5 6.64 15
16 Brannan, Wm. 1 1 .57 16
17 Baggett, Sam'l J. 1 1 .57 17
18 Burr, Peter P. 2 1 .89 18
19 Buck, Wm. T. 3 1 1 1.46 19
20 Brown, Chs. M. 1 .32 20
21 Ball, Thos. A. 3 1 1 2.21 21
22 Buck, John 3 1 1.08 22
23 Bozel, Rich'd 3 1 1.08 23
24 Baggott, Alosius 1 1 .44 24
25 Bryant, Frances K. 1 .12 25
26 Bradshaw, Uriah H. 1 1 .57 26
27 Brimmer, Miles 1 1 1 .67 27
28 Bradshaw, Wm. J. 1 .25 28
29 Bowen, Wm. 4 1 2.28 29
30 Baggett, Wm M. 2 1 1 .86 30
31 Browne, William 7 1 75 1 1 300 50 5 14.96 31
32 Barton, Thos. B. 6 2 $100 1 1 100 200 5 14.37 32
33 Browne, R. T. 1 1 5 6.10 33
34 Barton, Wm. S. 1 5 6.00 34
35 Bailey, M. W. 3 1 1 1.33 35
36 Barton, Howard T. 1 .25 36
37 Bell, Francis H. 1 .12 37
38 Blaydes, Ste. J. 1 1 1 1.44 38
39 Blackburn, R. L. 1 1 1.32 39
40 Beale, Wm. C. 9 3 2 1 50 50 6.93 40
41 Beale, Churchill 1 1 1.10 41
42 Berrey, J. J. 6 1 75 2 1 5.27 42
43 Berrey, Thos. J. 1 1 1 .69 43
44 Bouleware, Jno. M. 1 1 .44 44
45 Bradford, Joseph 1 .12 45
46 Brown, Asa 1 .25 46
47 Botts, Thos. H. 5 1 120 150 6.65 47
Page 1 89 12 325 22 3 10 18 16 895 320 2 2 1 150 800 119.28
1 Brown, N. F. D. 1 .25 1
2 Burke, Lewis 1 .25 2
3 Benson, Jane 1 1 .44 3
4 Benson, Mary J. 1 .32 4
5 Boardman, Stephen 1 .12 5
6 Baggett, Betsy 1 .32 6
7 Braxton, Mrs. 1 .32 7
8 Bank Virg'a 1 .25 8
9 Carter, Mary 2 .64 9
10 Clark, Benj. 1 1 .57 10
11 Crump, John 3 1 1.96 11
12 Cunningham, W. H. 1 1.00 12
13 Carter, Edwin 4 1 1 250 5.53 13
14 Campbell, Jas. N. 1 6 6.32 14
15 Chesley, Wm. S. 1 2 .57 15
16 Cooke, Jas. & Co. 1 .32 16
17 Cooke, James 2 1 1 1.39 17
18 Curtis, Jesse 4 1.28 18
19 Crawford, Lydia 1 .32 19
20 Cox, William 3 1 1 2.21 20
21 Carter, Mal. W. 3 1 1 1.31 21
22 Christy, Mary 1 .32 22
23 Curtis, Stiles P. 1 .25 23
24 Cole, Bernard 1 .12 24
25 Clark, John 1 1 100 1 1 2.54 25
26 Copenhagen, John 1 1 .44 26
27 Cudlipp, George 1 1 .44 27
28 Cox, Peter 1 .32 28
29 Chew, John J. 1 1 100 2 175 800 15.50 29
30 Campbell, Jas. M. 1 1 .69 30
31 Curtis, Charles 1 .12 31
32 Conway, Eustace 4 1 80 1 1 5 8.70 32
33 Carmichael, Geo. F. 4 2 50 1 1 1 5 8.98 33
34 Cheek, Will. F. 2 1 1.64 34
35 Caldwell, Jno. S. 3 1 1 2.25 35
36 Cox, Eliza 1 .32 36
37 Cash, Chas 1 1 .44 37
38 Carter, Will. F. 1350 20.25 38
39 Carmichael, Mrs. 2 1 .89 39
40 Caldwell, Maria 2 100 2.14 40
41 Cox, Abram 2 1 1 1.76 41
42 Clark, Horace 1 1 .44 42
43 Davis, Will. E. 1 .12 43
44 Dickey, Robert 4 1 1 2.03 44
45 Daingerfield, A. E. 3 1 300 5.71 45
46 Doggett, Hugh S. 1 1 .44 46
47 Doggett, Sam'l 1 .12 47
48 Daniels, N. M. 1 .32 48
Page 2 71 6 280 50 10 4 5 11 17 825 5 5 1350 800 6 103.02
1 Elder, John 1 .25 1
2 Eve, Geo. W. 1 1 1 1.07 2
3 Ellis, Mary 2 .64 3
4 Eubank, John 1 .25 4
5 English, Jno. A. 1 1 75 1 2.54 5
6 Ellis, Will P. 1 .50 6
7 English, Pamelia 1 .32 7
8 Edrington, Gilford 1 1 .44 8
9 Finnall, W. H. 4 2 3.28 9
10 Ford, Jas. W. 2 .64 10
11 Ferneyhough, Sally 1 .32 11
12 Fitzhugh, J. B. 2 1 1.64 12
13 French, Eliz'th 5 1 2.60 13
14 Frances, Ephraim 1 1 .44 14
15 Fitzhugh, Mrs. B. 3 1 1.21 15
16 Fitzhugh, Wm. H. Jr. 2 1 200 5 9.64 16
17 Frazer, Wm. 1 1 .82 17
18 Fusse, George 1 .25 18
19 F's Bank Va 1 .25 19
20 Galleher, J. G. 1 1.00 20
21 Gray, Robert 1 1 .37 21
22 Gill & Huffman 1 .32 22
23 Gill, Beverley T. 1 1.00 23
24 Genther, Henry D. 1 1 1 1.57 24
25 Goolrick, Peter 6 4 125, 50 2 1 200 10.19 25
26 Goolrick, for Tavern 8 2.56 26
27 Gore, Charles 1 1 .57 27
28 Green, Duff 1 .32 28
29 Golatt, Jos. 1 .25 29
30 Gravatt, Geo. 1 .32 30
31 Grotz, John 5 1 1.72 31
32 Grotz, Will 100 1 2.50 32
33 Gray, James 3 1 1.21 33
34 Goodwin, Ann 1 1 .57 34
35 Garnett, Geo. W. 1 1 .42 35
36 Graves, James 1 .12 36
37 Gillman, Granville 1 1 40 1 1.14 37
38 Goolrick, George 1 1 1.32 38
39 Gordon, Douglass H. 4 2 300, 200 2 1 250 14.98 39
40 Green, Lucy 1 32. 40
41 Goodwin, Arthur 3 2 1750 20.46 41
42 Henderson, Eliz'th 1 1.00 42
43 Hall, Jno. B. 4 1 1 92 3.16 43
44 Hough, Peyton 3 1 1 1.31 44
45 Hill, Mary 3 1 1.96 45
46 Hooten, A. 1 1 .82 46
Page 3 77 10 850 40 19 4 7 10 6 650 5 92 1750 98.62
1 Huffman, L. J. 1 1 1.32 1
2 Hunt, Conrad H. 2 1 1 50 2.64 2
3 Hunt, C. H. Tr of Stuart 66 .99 3
4 Hunt, C. H. Tr of Reynolds 240 3.60 4
5 Hart, Rob. W. 1 1 1.52 5
6 Howison, Edw'd 1 1.00 6
7 Hodges, Benj'n 1 1 1 1.57 7
8 Harding, Enoch Jr. 1 .32 8
9 Hancock, Will. 1 1 .44 9
10 Herndon, Brodie S. 4 1 1 270 5 11.58 10
11 Herndon, Jno. M. 3 1 150 2 1 200 50 5 14.31 11
12 Herndon, & Scott 2 1 .76 12
13 Holsey, Jos. J. 1 1 1.32 13
14 Henry, Ann C. 2 1 1.64 14
15 Haydon, John 3 3 1 1.38 15
16 Hanson, Thos. H. 2 1 1 800 10.14 16
17 Hart, John 5 1 1 1 3.22 17
18 Herndon, Charles 1 5 6.00 18
19 Hays, Ann S. 3 1 1 75 3.33 19
20 Hays, James 1 2 .52 20
21 Hurkamp, Jno. G. 1 .25 21
22 Hunter, E. M. 3 .96 22
23 Hulbert, Levi 1 1 .50 23
24 Hooe, Louisa C. 2 1 1.64 24
25 Harrow, Jas. D. 2 8 8.64 25
26 Hunt, Gilbert 1 .32 26
27 Jesse, Wm. J. 1 1 .82 27
28 James. J. H. 2 1 .89 28
29 Johnston, Eliza 2 1 .89 29
30 Johnston, Gab'l 3 1 1 2.08 30
31 Johnston, Jane 1 .32 31
32 Jenkins, Joel R. 1 .12 32
33 Jackson & Roberts 12 1 1 4.19 33
34 Johnston, Fanny H. 1 .32 34
35 Jones, Roy 3 1 1 .58 35
36 Jones, William 1 40 .70 36
37 Jones, Ann 1 .32 37
38 Jones, Jno. L. 1 .50 38
39 Jones, Wm. T. 1 1 .44 39
40 Jackson, W. A. 3 1 1 2.21 40
41 Kale, Anthony 1 1 50 1.32 41
42 King, William 1 .25 42
43 Kershaw, John 1 .25 43
44 King, Geo. H. 2 60 1 1 1.47 44
45 Knox, Thos. F. 7 3 1 1 150 6.04 45
46 King, Geo. P. 2 1 1 1 1.86 46
47 Kennedy, D. W. 1 1 1 .94 47
Page 4 82 14 150 100 19 6 3 14 11 795 50 10 5 306 800 8 107.28
1 Lomax, Rebecca T. 2 1 1.64 1
2 Lucas, Jas. W. 3 1 30 1.66 2
3 Lucas, Jas. W. Tr of Long 60 .90 3
4 Lucas, Albert G. 2 1 1 1.26 4
5 Laubert, J. L. 1 .50 5
6 Laurence, J. H. 1 5 5.50 6
7 Lewis, Ann 1 .12 7
8 Levino, E. 1 1 .57 8
9 Lucas, Edwin 3 6 150, 50 1 4.68 9
10 Little, Ann 3 1 50 275 4.71 10
11 Lipscomb, William 1 .50 11
12 Lannahan, John 1 1 .57 12
13 Lomax, J. T. 1 100 2 5 8.60 13
14 Little, Wm. A. 1 1.00 14
15 Long, Fielding 1 60 1.00 15
16 Lyell, Sam'l 1 .25 16
17 Leavell, Littleton 2 .64 17
18 Layton, Chas. 1 .12 18
19 Layton, Rob't 1 .12 19
20 Metcalfe, John 8 1 1 1 100 50 60 1000 17.46 20
21 Maddox, Jno. H. 3 1 1 75 3.58 21
22 McDowell, Edw'd 2 1 200 180 6.46 22
23 Mitchell, Wm. M. 1 1 1.32 23
24 McCalley, Chas. 1 1 .44 24
25 McCalley, Francis 1 1.00 25
26 Murray, Eliz'th 1 .32 26
27 Murray, William 1 .12 27
28 Murray, Alex'r 1 .25 28
29 McCalley, John 1 .12 29
30 Morgan, E. R. 2 .64 30
31 Mander, Chas. 1 .25 31
32 Moore, Lewis 1 .32 32
33 Miller, Jacob 4 1 1.40 33
34 Muse, Alexander 1 1 .44 34
35 Murphy, Wm. H. 3 1 1 1.71 35
36 Magrath, Marg't 1 1 .44 36
37 Mullen, James 1 .25 37
38 McGuire, Edw'd C. 3 1 1 1 2.31 38
39 Muir, William 1 280 700 12.20 39
40 McKildoe, Mary S. 3 2 300 1 1 25 7.16 40
41 McGuire, James 1 1 1 1.44 41
42 Maken, Thos 1 .25 42
43 Maddox, Wm. 1 .12 43
44 McKenzie, Sam'l 1 .12 44
45 Mercer, Hugh 4 1 1 150 100 350 9.78 45
46 Maury, Ellen 1 .32 46
47 Mills, James 1 .25 47
48 Minor, John 1 1 .82 48
Page 5 58 11 600 13 8 3 11 16 555 225 5 5 640 2335 105.81
1 Minor, Lucy L. 1 1 .57 1
2 McShane, John 1 1 .44 2
3 Mills, Thos. J. 1 .25 3
4 Morris, Montg'y 1 .25 4
5 McPhail, Geo. W. 1 .50 5
6 Maury, Eliza 2 .64 6
7 Nelson, Mary & E. Henderson 4 1 100 50 3.78 7
8 Nossett, Peter 1 .25 8
9 Nax, Jos. 1 1 .82 9
10 Owens, Sidney H. 2 1 .76 10
11 Owens & Beck 1 1 .44 11
12 Perkins, Ivory 1 2 100 1 2.52 12
13 Perkins, Abner 2 100 1 1 2.07 13
14 Pritchard, Wm. 1 .32 14
15 Pearson, Eleanor 1 .32 15
16 Pritchard & Thornton 1 50 1.07 16
17 Peyton, Geo. H. 1 .12 17
18 Peyton, Alex'r 1 1 .57 18
19 Phillips, Sam'l 4 1 1 125 60 5.15 19
20 Phillips, Alex'r K. 2 1 1.64 20
21 Payne, Daniel 1 1 .57 21
22 Peyton, Carter 2 .20 22
23 Phillips, Mrs. Hy. T. 1 1 .57 23
24 Pullen, Jno. M. 1 .32 24
25 Pollard, Joel T. 1 1 .44 25
26 Quisenberry, William 6 10 200, 200, 200, 65, 65 1 14.12 26
27 Reid, Maria 2 .64 27
28 Rudd, John 3 1 100 3.46 28
29 Roberts, Sam'l S. 1 .32 29
30 Rothrock, Geo. W. 2 1 .89 30
31 Rothrock, W. C. J. 6 1 1 1 3.27 31
32 Rains, L. P 1 1 1 .69 32
33 Rogers, Patsy 1 .32 33
34 Roberts, Jno. H. 1 1.00 34
35 Russell, Wm. G. 1 1 .44 35
36 Roberts, Wm. J. 4 1 1 400 1400 22.53 36
37 Rollins, Henry 1 1 1 1.57 37
38 Read, Dan'l G. 3 1 1 1.46 38
39 Rowton, Stewart 1 .12 39
40 Roberts, Landon 1 1 .44 40
41 Rollins, Enoch 1 1 1 1.44 41
42 Rootes, Thos. R. 3 .96 42
43 Rains, James 1 .12 43
44 Stringfellow, Miss 2 1 .89 44
45 Semple, R. B. 1 1.00 45
Page 6 65 18 980 9 3 6 12 12 725 110 1400 80.32
1 Smith, Robert 2 1 1 1.39 1
2 Scott, Jno. F. 3 1 1.96 2
3 Spilman, Peter 2 1 1.64 3
4 Settle, James 1 .25 4
5 Stone, Sam'l 1 1 1 1.07 5
6 Smith, Mrs. 1 .32 6
7 Samuel, Argalus E. 1 1 1 .69 7
8 Sorrell, Mrs. 1 .12 8
9 Smock, Sarah H. 1 .32 9
10 Sacrey, Benj'n 1 1 .44 10
11 Southard, James 1 1 .44 11
12 Sener, Jos. W. 1 1 .44 12
13 Smith, Will M. 4 1 50 1 1 5 7.88 13
14 Scott, Hugh 4 1 1 1 2.13 14
15 Scott, John 9 3 200 2 1 1 200 100 13.43 15
16 Stephens, Wm. H. 1 .32 16
17 Sanford, Jos. 8 1 2 3.16 17
18 Slaughter, William 4 1 1.53 18
19 Slaughter, Montg'y 3 1 200 4.96 19
20 Slaughter, M. & Co. 1 .10 20
21 Stanard, C. M. 3 1 125 50 4.58 21
22 Smock, Sarah 75 1.12 22
23 Smith, Henry 1 1.00 23
24 Schrickel, Fred'k 1 .12 24
25 Sacrey, Butler B. 3 1 1 50 2.96 25
26 Spindle, Will W. 1 .25 26
27 Short, Wm. W. 1 50, 50 50, 50 1 3.44 27
28 Smith, Will. K. 2 1 1 100 200 6.39 28
29 Shultice, Jno. L. 2 1 .89 29
30 Stevenson, Jane W. 3 1 90 2.56 30
31 Scott, Will S. 1 1 50 1 2.17 31
32 Spicer, Martin 1 .32 32
33 Sedden, Thos. Est 2 .64 33
34 Sedden, Nancy 2 .64 34
35 Smithers, John 1 .12 35
36 Smith, Rev'd Mr. 1 1 .37 36
37 Sterling, Jas. R. 1 .12 37
38 Timberlake, Jas. B. 1 1 1 1.42 38
39 Tennent, Anna S. 3 1 1.96 39
40 Thom, Reu. T. 3 1 100 2.71 40
41 Tennent, Doct. 1 1.00 41
42 Thom, Jas. R. 1 .25 42
43 Timberlake, John 1 1 .82 43
44 Taylor, Mary 1 .32 44
45 Taylor, James 1 .25 45
46 Thomas, Wm. H. 1 .25 46
47 Tombs, John 1 50 1 1.10 47
48 Thornton, Thos. S. 1 1 .57 48
49 Temple, Eliz'th 2 1 200 3.89 49
Page 7 79 10 400 50 100 13 6 10 13 10 1065 350 5 75 84.88
1 True, Dophin 1 .12 1
2 Thorburn, Rob. 150 2.25 2
3 True, Walter A. 1 .32 3
4 Towles, Oliver 1 .25 4
5 Toombs, Jno. G. 1 10 .25 5
6 True, Will. 1 .10 6
7 True, Julia Ann 1 .25 7
8 Terrier, Eliz'th 1 1 .57 8
9 Thornton, Presley 1 800 8.50 9
10 Thornton, Will. 1 1 .44 10
11 Wallace, Jno. H. 6 1 150 2 1 65 5 835 320 28.32 11
12 Warren, William 7 2 1 1 1 3.94 12
13 Wallace, Eliz'th B. 4 1.28 13
14 Williams, John 1 1 1 .94 14
15 White, Chester B. 1 .25 15
16 Wellford, Chs. C. 4 1 1 2.40 16
17 White, Wm. H. 3 1 50 1 100 4.31 17
18 Waite, Geo. B. 1 1 1 .94 18
19 Wallingsford, J. W. 1 1 .57 19
20 Waite, James 1 .12 20
21 Waller, L. B. 1 .25 21
22 Waite, Chs. B. 1 1 .44 22
23 Walker, Jas. N. 1 1 .44 23
24 Williams, Henry 1 1 .44 24
25 Worthington, Wm. H. 1 1 .57 25
26 White, Jesse 1 1 .57 26
27 Wright, Thos. 2 1 1 1.39 27
28 Walker, Susan 3 .96 28
29 Wellford, Bev. R. 7 1 1 1 150 5 10.84 29
30 Wellford, Jno. S. 1 5 6.00 30
31 Woodsworth, Jas. 1 1.00 31
32 Wallace, Rich'd 1 .25 32
33 Wright, James 1 .12 33
34 Wellford, Jno. S. Est 4 1 150 200 6.78 34
35 Williams, R'd. 1 1 .57 35
36 Whittemore, Jno. M. 3 1 .55 36
37 White, Wm. 2 1 .89 37
38 Wheeler, Wm. 1 1 .57 38
39 Wingfield, Benj. F. 1 1 .44 39
40 Whaley, Jno. L. 1 .25 40
41 Walker, Jno. 1 .12 41
42 Young, Jno. J. 4 2 3.28 42
43 Brooke Geo 1 .32 43
44 DeBaptist Edw'd 2 2 .84 44
45 Jones, John 1 1 .22 45
46 Richards, Adolphus 1 .32 46
47 Taliaferro, Claiborne 1 .10 47
48 White, Nelson 1 .10 48
49 West, James 1 .32 49
50 Williams, Walter 1 .32 50
Page 8 66 15 200 10 10 4 5 14 14 460 350 15 835 1050 95.44
Totals 587 96 4135 115 38 49 98 102 5970 1405 7 8 2 3448 8235 2 $794.66

Statement
Page Slaves Horses Carriages Stages Carryalls Gigs Watches Clocks Pianos Plate Attorneys Phyisicans Dentists Interest,Bonds Presses
    # Tax # Tax # Tax # Tax Gold Patent Other Metal Other # Tax   # Tax # Tax # Tax Tax Tax # Tax
1 89 12 4 4.87 22 3 10 18 16 5 13.42 4.80 2 10.00 2 10.00 1 5.00 2.25 8.00
2 71 6 3 4.20 1 .75 10 4 5 11 17 4 12.37 1 5.00 1 5.00 20.25 8.00 1 6.00
3 77 10 6 12.75 1 .60 19 4 7 10 6 3 9.75 1 5.00 1.38 17.50
4 82 14 1 2.25 2 1.50 19 6 3 14 11 6 11.92 .75 2 10.00 1 5.00 4.59 8.00 1 8.00
5 58 11 4 9.00 13 8 3 11 16 5 8.32 3.37 1 5.00 1 5.00 9.60 23.25
6 65 18 8 14.70 9 3 6 12 12 4 10.87 1.65 14.00
7 79 10 5 6.00 1 .75 2 1.50 13 6 10 13 10 8 15.97 5.25 1 5.00 1.12
8 66 15 2 3.00 1 .15 10 4 5 14 14 4 6.90 5.25 3 15.00 12.52 11.50
Total 587 96 33 $56.78 1 .75 6 $3.75 1 .75 115 38 49 98 102 39 $89.55 $21.07 7 35.00 8 40.00 2 10.00 $51.72 $90.25 2 $14.00

Proof
587 Slaves at 32 $187.84
96 Horses &c at 10 9.60
$4135 Carriages at 1 62.02
115 Gold Watches at $1 115,00
38 Patent Watches at 50 19.00
49 Other Watches at 25 12.25
98 Metallic Clocks at 25 24.50
102 Other Clocks at 12 12.75
$5970 Pianos at 1 89.55
$1405 Plate at 1 21.07
7 Attorneys at $5 35.00
8 Phys's & Surgeons at $5 40.00
2 Dentists at $5 10.00
$3448 Interest &c at 17 pr ct 51.72
$9035 Income 90.35
14 Newspaper P. Presses 14.00
Total $794.66

In my District
446 white males over 16 years
53 male free Negroes & Mulattoes
96 Female Negroes
JM

I, Jno. Metcalfe, Commissioner of the Revenue for the Town of Fredericksburg do swear, that in making out the list hereto annexed, I have diligently, faithfully and strictly, to the best of my knowledge and ability, pursued the provisions of the several laws prescribing the duties of a Commissioner of the Revenue.
Jno. Metcalfe
Commissioner as aforesaid

Sworn to and subscribed before me, a Magistrate for the Corporation of Fredericksburg, on the 7 day of July 1847.
John Hart, J. P.

I do hereby certify, that I have examined the foregoing List of Taxable Property, and certify the same to be correct, as far as my information will enable me to do so. I further certify, that John Metcalfe, Commissioner of the Revenue, has complied with the provisions of the 33d and 34th section of the General License Law, which passed the 3d March 1840.
J. J. Chew
Clerk of the Hustings Court of Fredericksburg

I do hereby certify, that I delivered, a true copy of the foregoing List of Taxable Property to John C. Cammack, Deputy for James D. Dillard, Sheriff of Spotsylv'a County on the 26th day of June 1847.
Jno. Metcalfe
Commissioner of the Revenue



Last Updated on 16 January 2006
Entered by Gary Stanton
Email: gstanton@umw.edu